ZLogging - Bro/Zeek logging framework for Python

The ZLogging module provides an easy-to-use bridge between the logging framework of the well-known Bro/Zeek Network Security Monitor (IDS).

As of version 3.0, the Bro project has been officially renamed to Zeek. 1

It was originally developed and derived from the BroAPT project, which is an APT detection framework based on the Bro/Zeek IDS and extended with highly customised and customisable Python wrappers.

Installation

Note

ZLogging supports Python all versions above and includes 3.6.

pip install zlogging

Usage

Currently ZLogging supports the two builtin formats as supported by the Bro/Zeek logging framework, i.e. ASCII and JSON.

A typical ASCII log file would be like:

#separator \x09
#set_separator       ,
#empty_field (empty)
#unset_field -
#path        http
#open        2020-02-09-18-54-09
#fields      ts      uid     id.orig_h       id.orig_p       id.resp_h       id.resp_p       trans_depth     method  host    uri     referrer        version user_agent      origin  request_body_len        response_body_len       status_code     status_msg      info_code       info_msg        tags    username        password        proxied orig_fuids      orig_filenames  orig_mime_types resp_fuids      resp_filenames  resp_mime_types
#types       time    string  addr    port    addr    port    count   string  string  string  string  string  string  string  count   count   count   string  count   string  set[enum]       string  string  set[string]     vector[string]  vector[string]  vector[string]  vector[string]  vector[string]  vector[string]
1581245648.761106    CSksID3S6ZxplpvmXg      192.168.2.108   56475   151.139.128.14  80      1       GET     ocsp.sectigo.com        /MFYwVKADAgEAME0wSzBJMAkGBSsOAwIaBQAEFEML0g5PE3oabJGPJOXafjJNRzPIBBSNjF7EVK2K4Xfpm/mbBeG4AY1h4QIQfdsAWJ+CXcbhDVFyNWosjQ==       -       1.1     com.apple.trustd/2.0    -       0       471     200     OK      -       -       (empty) -       -       -       -       -       -       FPtlyEAhcf8orBPu7       -       application/ocsp-response
1581245651.379048    CuvUnl4HyhQbCs4tXe      192.168.2.108   56483   23.59.247.10    80      1       GET     isrg.trustid.ocsp.identrust.com /MFYwVKADAgEAME0wSzBJMAkGBSsOAwIaBQAEFG/0aE1DEtJIYoGcwCs9Rywdii+mBBTEp7Gkeyxx+tvhS5B1/8QVYIWJEAIQCgFBQgAAAVOFc2oLheynCA==       -       1.1     com.apple.trustd/2.0    -       0       1398    200     OK      -       -       (empty) -       -       -       -       -       -       FRfFoq3hSZkdCNDf9l      -       application/ocsp-response
1581245654.396334    CWo4pd1z97XLB2o0h2      192.168.2.108   56486   23.59.247.122   80      1       GET     isrg.trustid.ocsp.identrust.com /MFYwVKADAgEAME0wSzBJMAkGBSsOAwIaBQAEFG/0aE1DEtJIYoGcwCs9Rywdii+mBBTEp7Gkeyxx+tvhS5B1/8QVYIWJEAIQCgFBQgAAAVOFc2oLheynCA==       -       1.1     com.apple.trustd/2.0    -       0       1398    200     OK      -       -       (empty) -       -       -       -       -       -       FvQehf1pRsGmwDUzJe      -       application/ocsp-response
1581245692.728840    CxFQzh2ePtsnQhFNX3      192.168.2.108   56527   23.59.247.10    80      1       GET     isrg.trustid.ocsp.identrust.com /MFYwVKADAgEAME0wSzBJMAkGBSsOAwIaBQAEFG/0aE1DEtJIYoGcwCs9Rywdii+mBBTEp7Gkeyxx+tvhS5B1/8QVYIWJEAIQCgFBQgAAAVOFc2oLheynCA==       -       1.1     com.apple.trustd/2.0    -       0       1398    200     OK      -       -       (empty) -       -       -       -       -       -       FIeFj8WWNyhA1psGg       -       application/ocsp-response
1581245701.693971    CPZSNk1Y6kDvAN0KZ8      192.168.2.108   56534   23.59.247.122   80      1       GET     isrg.trustid.ocsp.identrust.com /MFYwVKADAgEAME0wSzBJMAkGBSsOAwIaBQAEFG/0aE1DEtJIYoGcwCs9Rywdii+mBBTEp7Gkeyxx+tvhS5B1/8QVYIWJEAIQCgFBQgAAAVOFc2oLheynCA==       -       1.1     com.apple.trustd/2.0    -       0       1398    200     OK      -       -       (empty) -       -       -       -       -       -       F0fGHe4RPuNBhYWNv6      -       application/ocsp-response
1581245707.848088    Cnab6CHFOprdppKi5       192.168.2.108   56542   23.59.247.122   80      1       GET     isrg.trustid.ocsp.identrust.com /MFYwVKADAgEAME0wSzBJMAkGBSsOAwIaBQAEFG/0aE1DEtJIYoGcwCs9Rywdii+mBBTEp7Gkeyxx+tvhS5B1/8QVYIWJEAIQCgFBQgAAAVOFc2oLheynCA==       -       1.1     com.apple.trustd/2.0    -       0       1398    200     OK      -       -       (empty) -       -       -       -       -       -       FgDBep1h7EPHC8qQB6      -       application/ocsp-response
1581245952.784242    CPNd6t3ofePpdNjErl      192.168.2.108   56821   176.31.225.118  80      1       GET     tracker.trackerfix.com  /announce?info_hash=y\x82es"\x1dV\xde|m\xbe"\xe5\xef\xbe\x04\xb3\x1fW\xfc&peer_id=-qB4210-0ZOn5Ifyl*WF&port=63108&uploaded=0&downloaded=0&left=3225455594&corrupt=0&key=6B23B036&event=started&numwant=200&compact=1&no_peer_id=1&supportcrypto=1&redundant=0   -       1.1     -       -       0       0       307     Temporary Redirect      -       -       (empty) -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -
1581245960.123295    CfAkwf2CFI13b24gqf      192.168.2.108   56889   176.31.225.118  80      1       GET     tracker.trackerfix.com  /announce?info_hash=!u7\xdad\x94x\xecS\x80\x89\x04\x9c\x13#\x84M\x1b\xcd\x1a&peer_id=-qB4210-i36iloGe*QT9&port=63108&uploaded=0&downloaded=0&left=1637966572&corrupt=0&key=ECE6637E&event=started&numwant=200&compact=1&no_peer_id=1&supportcrypto=1&redundant=0        -       1.1     -       -       0       0       307     Temporary Redirect      -       -       (empty) -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -
#close       2020-02-09-19-01-40

Its corresponding JSON log file would be like:

{"ts": 1581245648.761106, "uid": "CSksID3S6ZxplpvmXg", "id.orig_h": "192.168.2.108", "id.orig_p": 56475, "id.resp_h": "151.139.128.14", "id.resp_p": 80, "trans_depth": 1, "method": "GET", "host": "ocsp.sectigo.com", "uri": "/MFYwVKADAgEAME0wSzBJMAkGBSsOAwIaBQAEFEML0g5PE3oabJGPJOXafjJNRzPIBBSNjF7EVK2K4Xfpm/mbBeG4AY1h4QIQfdsAWJ+CXcbhDVFyNWosjQ==", "referrer": "-", "version": "1.1", "user_agent": "com.apple.trustd/2.0", "origin": "-", "request_body_len": 0, "response_body_len": 471, "status_code": 200, "status_msg": "OK", "info_code": null, "info_msg": "-", "tags": [], "username": "-", "password": "-", "proxied": null, "orig_fuids": null, "orig_filenames": null, "orig_mime_types": null, "resp_fuids": ["FPtlyEAhcf8orBPu7"], "resp_filenames": null, "resp_mime_types": ["application/ocsp-response"]}
{"ts": 1581245651.379048, "uid": "CuvUnl4HyhQbCs4tXe", "id.orig_h": "192.168.2.108", "id.orig_p": 56483, "id.resp_h": "23.59.247.10", "id.resp_p": 80, "trans_depth": 1, "method": "GET", "host": "isrg.trustid.ocsp.identrust.com", "uri": "/MFYwVKADAgEAME0wSzBJMAkGBSsOAwIaBQAEFG/0aE1DEtJIYoGcwCs9Rywdii+mBBTEp7Gkeyxx+tvhS5B1/8QVYIWJEAIQCgFBQgAAAVOFc2oLheynCA==", "referrer": "-", "version": "1.1", "user_agent": "com.apple.trustd/2.0", "origin": "-", "request_body_len": 0, "response_body_len": 1398, "status_code": 200, "status_msg": "OK", "info_code": null, "info_msg": "-", "tags": [], "username": "-", "password": "-", "proxied": null, "orig_fuids": null, "orig_filenames": null, "orig_mime_types": null, "resp_fuids": ["FRfFoq3hSZkdCNDf9l"], "resp_filenames": null, "resp_mime_types": ["application/ocsp-response"]}
{"ts": 1581245654.396334, "uid": "CWo4pd1z97XLB2o0h2", "id.orig_h": "192.168.2.108", "id.orig_p": 56486, "id.resp_h": "23.59.247.122", "id.resp_p": 80, "trans_depth": 1, "method": "GET", "host": "isrg.trustid.ocsp.identrust.com", "uri": "/MFYwVKADAgEAME0wSzBJMAkGBSsOAwIaBQAEFG/0aE1DEtJIYoGcwCs9Rywdii+mBBTEp7Gkeyxx+tvhS5B1/8QVYIWJEAIQCgFBQgAAAVOFc2oLheynCA==", "referrer": "-", "version": "1.1", "user_agent": "com.apple.trustd/2.0", "origin": "-", "request_body_len": 0, "response_body_len": 1398, "status_code": 200, "status_msg": "OK", "info_code": null, "info_msg": "-", "tags": [], "username": "-", "password": "-", "proxied": null, "orig_fuids": null, "orig_filenames": null, "orig_mime_types": null, "resp_fuids": ["FvQehf1pRsGmwDUzJe"], "resp_filenames": null, "resp_mime_types": ["application/ocsp-response"]}
{"ts": 1581245692.72884, "uid": "CxFQzh2ePtsnQhFNX3", "id.orig_h": "192.168.2.108", "id.orig_p": 56527, "id.resp_h": "23.59.247.10", "id.resp_p": 80, "trans_depth": 1, "method": "GET", "host": "isrg.trustid.ocsp.identrust.com", "uri": "/MFYwVKADAgEAME0wSzBJMAkGBSsOAwIaBQAEFG/0aE1DEtJIYoGcwCs9Rywdii+mBBTEp7Gkeyxx+tvhS5B1/8QVYIWJEAIQCgFBQgAAAVOFc2oLheynCA==", "referrer": "-", "version": "1.1", "user_agent": "com.apple.trustd/2.0", "origin": "-", "request_body_len": 0, "response_body_len": 1398, "status_code": 200, "status_msg": "OK", "info_code": null, "info_msg": "-", "tags": [], "username": "-", "password": "-", "proxied": null, "orig_fuids": null, "orig_filenames": null, "orig_mime_types": null, "resp_fuids": ["FIeFj8WWNyhA1psGg"], "resp_filenames": null, "resp_mime_types": ["application/ocsp-response"]}
{"ts": 1581245701.693971, "uid": "CPZSNk1Y6kDvAN0KZ8", "id.orig_h": "192.168.2.108", "id.orig_p": 56534, "id.resp_h": "23.59.247.122", "id.resp_p": 80, "trans_depth": 1, "method": "GET", "host": "isrg.trustid.ocsp.identrust.com", "uri": "/MFYwVKADAgEAME0wSzBJMAkGBSsOAwIaBQAEFG/0aE1DEtJIYoGcwCs9Rywdii+mBBTEp7Gkeyxx+tvhS5B1/8QVYIWJEAIQCgFBQgAAAVOFc2oLheynCA==", "referrer": "-", "version": "1.1", "user_agent": "com.apple.trustd/2.0", "origin": "-", "request_body_len": 0, "response_body_len": 1398, "status_code": 200, "status_msg": "OK", "info_code": null, "info_msg": "-", "tags": [], "username": "-", "password": "-", "proxied": null, "orig_fuids": null, "orig_filenames": null, "orig_mime_types": null, "resp_fuids": ["F0fGHe4RPuNBhYWNv6"], "resp_filenames": null, "resp_mime_types": ["application/ocsp-response"]}
{"ts": 1581245707.848088, "uid": "Cnab6CHFOprdppKi5", "id.orig_h": "192.168.2.108", "id.orig_p": 56542, "id.resp_h": "23.59.247.122", "id.resp_p": 80, "trans_depth": 1, "method": "GET", "host": "isrg.trustid.ocsp.identrust.com", "uri": "/MFYwVKADAgEAME0wSzBJMAkGBSsOAwIaBQAEFG/0aE1DEtJIYoGcwCs9Rywdii+mBBTEp7Gkeyxx+tvhS5B1/8QVYIWJEAIQCgFBQgAAAVOFc2oLheynCA==", "referrer": "-", "version": "1.1", "user_agent": "com.apple.trustd/2.0", "origin": "-", "request_body_len": 0, "response_body_len": 1398, "status_code": 200, "status_msg": "OK", "info_code": null, "info_msg": "-", "tags": [], "username": "-", "password": "-", "proxied": null, "orig_fuids": null, "orig_filenames": null, "orig_mime_types": null, "resp_fuids": ["FgDBep1h7EPHC8qQB6"], "resp_filenames": null, "resp_mime_types": ["application/ocsp-response"]}
{"ts": 1581245952.784242, "uid": "CPNd6t3ofePpdNjErl", "id.orig_h": "192.168.2.108", "id.orig_p": 56821, "id.resp_h": "176.31.225.118", "id.resp_p": 80, "trans_depth": 1, "method": "GET", "host": "tracker.trackerfix.com", "uri": "/announce?info_hash=y\\x82es\"\\x1dV\\xde|m\\xbe\"\\xe5\\xef\\xbe\\x04\\xb3\\x1fW\\xfc&peer_id=-qB4210-0ZOn5Ifyl*WF&port=63108&uploaded=0&downloaded=0&left=3225455594&corrupt=0&key=6B23B036&event=started&numwant=200&compact=1&no_peer_id=1&supportcrypto=1&redundant=0", "referrer": "-", "version": "1.1", "user_agent": "-", "origin": "-", "request_body_len": 0, "response_body_len": 0, "status_code": 307, "status_msg": "Temporary Redirect", "info_code": null, "info_msg": "-", "tags": [], "username": "-", "password": "-", "proxied": null, "orig_fuids": null, "orig_filenames": null, "orig_mime_types": null, "resp_fuids": null, "resp_filenames": null, "resp_mime_types": null}
{"ts": 1581245960.123295, "uid": "CfAkwf2CFI13b24gqf", "id.orig_h": "192.168.2.108", "id.orig_p": 56889, "id.resp_h": "176.31.225.118", "id.resp_p": 80, "trans_depth": 1, "method": "GET", "host": "tracker.trackerfix.com", "uri": "/announce?info_hash=!u7\\xdad\\x94x\\xecS\\x80\\x89\\x04\\x9c\\x13#\\x84M\\x1b\\xcd\\x1a&peer_id=-qB4210-i36iloGe*QT9&port=63108&uploaded=0&downloaded=0&left=1637966572&corrupt=0&key=ECE6637E&event=started&numwant=200&compact=1&no_peer_id=1&supportcrypto=1&redundant=0", "referrer": "-", "version": "1.1", "user_agent": "-", "origin": "-", "request_body_len": 0, "response_body_len": 0, "status_code": 307, "status_msg": "Temporary Redirect", "info_code": null, "info_msg": "-", "tags": [], "username": "-", "password": "-", "proxied": null, "orig_fuids": null, "orig_filenames": null, "orig_mime_types": null, "resp_fuids": null, "resp_filenames": null, "resp_mime_types": null}

How to Load/Parse a Log File?

To load (parse) a log file generically, i.e. when you don’t know what format the log file is, you can simple call the parse(), load(), or loads() functions:

# to parse log at filename
>>> parse('path/to/log')
# to load log from a file object
>>> with open('path/to/log', 'rb') as file:
...     load(file)
# to load log from a string
>>> with open('/path/to/log', 'rb') as file:
...     loads(file.read())

Note

When calling load(), the file object must be opened in binary mode.

When calling loads(), if the data suplied is an encoded string (str), the function will first try to decode it as a bytestring (bytes) with 'ascii' encoding.

If you do know the format, you may call the specified functions for each format, e.g. parse_ascii() and parse_json(), etc.

If you would like to customise your own parser, just subclass BaseParser and implement your own ideas.

How to Dump/Write a Log File?

Before dumping (writing) a log file, you need to create a log data model first. Just like in the Bro/Zeek script language, when customise logging, you need to notify the logging framework with a new log stream. Here, in ZLogging, we introduced data model for the same purpose.

A data model is a subclass of Model with fields and data types declared. A typical data model can be as following:

class MyLog(Model):
    field_one = StringType()
    field_two = SetType(element_type=PortType)

where field_one is string type, i.e. StringType; and field_two is set[port] types, i.e. SetType of PortType.

Or you may use type annotations as PEP 484 introduced when declaring data models. All available type hints can be found in zlogging.typing:

class MyLog(Model):
    field_one: zeek_string
    field_two: zeek_set[zeek_port]

See also

See BaseType and Model for more information about the data types and data model.

After declaration of your data model, you can know dump (write) your log file with the corresponding functions.

If you would like to customise your own writer, just subclass BaseWriter and implement your own ideas.